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Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Low Emission Vehicle Program

American Government Special Collections Reference Desk

American Government

Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Low Emission Vehicle Program

H. Curtis Spalding
Environmental Protection Agency
January 27, 2014


[Federal Register Volume 79, Number 17 (Monday, January 27, 2014)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 4308-4313]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2014-01502]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 52

[EPA-R01-OAR-2010-0121; A-1-FRL-9905-79-Region 1]


Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; 
Connecticut; Low Emission Vehicle Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to 
approve a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the 
State of Connecticut. The regulations adopted by Connecticut include 
the California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) II light-duty motor vehicle 
emission standards effective in model year 2008, the California LEV II 
medium-duty vehicle standards effective in model year 2009, and 
greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty motor vehicles and 
medium-duty vehicles effective with model year 2009. The Connecticut 
LEV regulation submitted also includes a zero emission vehicle (ZEV) 
provision, as well as emission control label and environmental 
performance label requirements. Connecticut has adopted these revisions 
to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen 
oxides (NOX) in accordance with the requirements of the 
Clean Air Act (CAA), as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (carbon 
dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrofluorocarbons). In addition, 
Connecticut has worked to ensure that their program is identical to 
California's, as required by the CAA. The intended effect of this 
action is to propose approval of the Connecticut LEV II program. In 
addition, EPA is proposing to approve the removal of the definition and 
regulation of ``composite motor vehicles'' from the Connecticut's SIP-
approved vehicle inspection and maintenance program. These actions are 
being taken under the CAA.

[[Page 4309]]


DATES: Written comments must be received on or before February 26, 
2014.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID Number EPA-
R01-OAR-2010-0121 by one of the following methods:
    1. www.regulations.gov: Follow the on-line instructions for 
submitting comments.
    2. Email: arnold.anne@epa.gov.
    3. Fax (617) 918-0047.
    4. Mail: ``Docket Identification Number EPA-R01-OAR-2010-0121,'' 
Anne Arnold, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England 
Regional Office, Office of Ecosystem Protection, Air Quality Planning 
Unit, 5 Post Office Square--Suite 100, (Mail code OEP05-2), Boston, MA 
02109-3912.
    5. Hand Delivery or Courier. Deliver your comments to: Anne Arnold, 
Manager, Air Quality Planning Unit, Office of Ecosystem Protection, 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional Office, 
Office of Ecosystem Protection, Air Quality Planning Unit, 5 Post 
Office Square--Suite 100, (mail code OEP05-2), Boston, MA 02109-3912. 
Such deliveries are only accepted during the Regional Office's normal 
hours of operation. The Regional Office's official hours of business 
are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., excluding legal 
holidays.
    Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R01-OAR-
2010-0121. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included 
in the public docket without change and may be made available online at 
www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, 
unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential 
Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is 
restricted by statute. Do not submit through www.regulations.gov, or 
email, information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected. 
The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, 
which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information 
unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email 
comment directly to EPA without going through www.regulations.gov your 
email address will be automatically captured and included as part of 
the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on 
the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that 
you include your name and other contact information in the body of your 
comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your 
comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for 
clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic 
files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of 
encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses.
    Docket: All documents in the electronic docket are listed in the 
www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some 
information is not publicly available, i.e., CBI or other information 
whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such 
as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be 
publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket 
materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or 
in hard copy at Office of Ecosystem Protection, U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional Office, Office of Ecosystem 
Protection, Air Quality Planning Unit, 5 Post Office Square--Suite 100, 
Boston, MA. EPA requests that if at all possible, you contact the 
contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section to 
schedule your inspection. The Regional Office's official hours of 
business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., excluding 
legal holidays.
    In addition, copies of the state submittal are also available for 
public inspection during normal business hours, by appointment at the 
State Air Agency; the Bureau of Air Management, Department of Energy 
and Environmental Protection, State Office Building, 79 Elm Street, 
Hartford, CT 06106-1630.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donald O. Cooke, Air Quality Planning 
Unit, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional 
Office, Office of Ecosystem Protection, Air Quality Planning Unit, 5 
Post Office Square--Suite 100, (Mail code OEP05-2), Boston, MA 02109-
3912, telephone number (617) 918-1668, fax number (617) 918-0668, email 
cooke.donald@epa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document whenever ``we,'' 
``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. Organization of this document. 
The following outline is provided to aid in locating information in 
this preamble.

I. Background and Purpose
II. The California LEV Program
III. Relevant EPA and CAA Requirements
    A. Waiver Process
    B. State Adoption of California Standards
IV. Level of Emission Reductions This Program Will Achieve
V. Revisions to the Connecticut Motor Vehicle Inspection Program
VI. Proposed Action
VII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

I. Background and Purpose

    On January 22, 2010, the Connecticut Department of Environmental 
Protection (now known as the Connecticut Department of Energy and 
Environmental Protection, CT DEEP) submitted a revision to its State 
Implementation Plan (SIP) consisting of Connecticut's Low Emissions 
Vehicle II (LEV II) program, as adopted on December 4, 2004, and 
subsequently amended on December 22, 2005 and August 4, 2009. The 
Connecticut LEV II program is cited as a weight-of-evidence measure in 
Connecticut's Attainment Demonstration SIP for the 1997 8-hour ozone 
standard, submitted to EPA on February 1, 2008.
    On December 4, 2004, Connecticut repealed the provisions of section 
22a-174-36 of the Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies, rescinding 
both the California Low Emission Vehicle I program and the National Low 
Emission Vehicle (NLEV) program. In accordance with section 177 of the 
Clean Air Act (CAA) and as required by Connecticut Public Act 04-84,\1\ 
Connecticut adopted section 22a-174-36b, the California Low Emission 
Vehicle II (LEV II) program, including all ``zero emission vehicle'' 
program elements, commencing with 2008 model year vehicles.
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    \1\ On May 10, 2004, the Governor of the State of Connecticut 
signed into law Public Act 04-84, which the General Assembly adopted 
on April 22, 2004. Public Act 04-84, amending section 22a-174g of 
the Connecticut General Statutes (C.G.S.), directs the Commissioner 
of Environmental Protection to adopt regulations by December 31, 
2004, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 of the C.G.S., 
to implement the light duty motor vehicle emission standards of the 
state of California applicable to motor vehicles of model year 2008 
and later. Furthermore, this Public Act directs the Commissioner to 
amend such regulations from time to time, in accordance with any 
changes in the standards made by the state of California. California 
has revised its Low Emission Vehicle standards to adopt green house 
gas emission standards for passenger cars, light duty trucks and 
medium duty passenger vehicles commencing with 2009 and subsequent 
model year vehicles.
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    On December 22, 2005, Connecticut amended section 22a-174-36b of 
the Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies, making minor technical 
corrections and clarifications; adopting California LEV II emission 
standards and related provisions for medium-duty vehicles commencing 
with the 2009 model year; adopting recently announced revisions 
concerning LEV II greenhouse gas emission standards and related 
provisions for passenger cars, light duty trucks and medium-duty

[[Page 4310]]

passenger vehicles commencing with the 2009 model year in accordance 
with section 177 of the CAA and Connecticut Public Act 04-84; and 
providing additional clarification and flexibility with respect to the 
implementation of the zero emissions vehicle (ZEV) program in 
Connecticut.
    On August 4, 2009, Connecticut adopted a third amendment consisting 
of revisions to two sections of the air quality regulations concerning 
motor vehicles. The recall, warranty, ZEV, and ZEV travel provision 
amendments update the Connecticut LEV program consistent with changes 
California made to its LEV program. Specifically, section 22a-174-36b 
was revised in three respects:

--First, section 22a-174-36b was updated in accordance with Connecticut 
Public Act 06-161 \2\ to require manufacturers to place environmental 
performance labels starting on 2008 model year and later vehicles sold 
or leased in Connecticut on or after January 1, 2009. Labels must 
contain a smog score and a global warming score measuring the amount of 
greenhouse gas emissions from the car compared to the average emissions 
of all vehicle models of the same model year for that class of cars. 
The label will provide consumers with information on how a vehicle 
purchase will affect the environment.
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    \2\ On June 6, 2006, the Governor of the State of Connecticut 
signed into law Public Act 06-161. Public Act 06-161 requires the 
Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) 
commissioner, in consultation with the Department of Motor Vehicles 
(DMV) commissioner, to: (1) Establish a greenhouse gas (GHG) 
labeling program for new motor vehicles sold or leased in 
Connecticut beginning with the 2009 model year; and (2) educate the 
public about the labeling program and GHGs. It bars the sale or 
lease of a 2009 or later model year motor vehicle without the 
required GHG label and funds these programs through a $5 fee the DMV 
must impose on new car registrations starting January 1, 2007, and 
bars the sale or lease of a 2009 or later model year motor vehicle 
without the required GHG label. The Act applies to vehicles with a 
gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less.
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--Second, section 22a-174-36b was updated in accordance with changes 
made to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) low emissions vehicle 
program, which serves as the basis for section 22a-174-36b. The updated 
provisions include the ``travel provisions'' contained in the ZEV 
program. Travel provisions amend methods by which manufacturers are 
credited when placing zero emission or other advanced technology 
vehicles in service in California or any state that has adopted 
California's motor vehicle emission control program under section 177 
of the CAA.
--Third, technical changes consistent with California's vehicle recall 
and warranty provisions were included.

    In addition to the amendments to the Connecticut LEV program, 
Connecticut's January 22, 2010 SIP revision includes a change in its 
motor vehicle emissions inspection program to exempt composite vehicles 
from tailpipe inspections. The first change to section 22a-174-27, 
``Emission standards and on-board diagnostic II test requirements for 
periodic motor vehicle inspection and maintenance,'' consists of 
removing the definition of ``composite vehicle'' at section 22a-174-
27(b)(3). This section previously stated, ``Composite Motor Vehicle'' 
means a vehicle that is designated ``COMP'' or ``COMPO'' in the 
``make'' field of an applicable Connecticut motor vehicle registration 
certificate.'' The second change was the removal of section 22a-174-
27(e), ``Composite motor vehicles,'' which previously stated, ``For 
2005 and earlier model year composite motor vehicles, the maximum 
allowable emissions shall be 4.0 VOL. % CO [volume % carbon monoxide] 
and 800 ppm HC [parts per million hydrocarbons]. For 2006 and later 
model year composite motor vehicles, the maximum allowable emissions 
shall be 1.2 VOL. % CO and 220 ppm HC.'' When EPA approved 
Connecticut's December 19, 2007 inspection and maintenance program SIP 
revision on December 5, 2008 (73 FR 74019), we approved the August 25, 
2004 version of section 22a-174-27 into the SIP. The Connecticut 
regulation section 22a-174-27, adopted by Connecticut on August 25, 
2004, does not reflect Connecticut's Public Act 07-167, which was 
signed into law on June 25, 2007 by the Governor of the State of 
Connecticut. Public Act 07-167, as codified in Connecticut General 
Statutes (C.G.S.) section 14-164c(c), exempts composite vehicles from 
on-board diagnostic emissions testing requirements.\3\
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    \3\ Specifically, C.G.S. section 14-164(c) exempts the following 
twelve (12) categories from ``an inspection procedure using an on-
board diagnostic information system for all 1996 model year and 
newer motor vehicles:'' ``(1) Vehicles having a gross weight of more 
than ten thousand pounds; (2) vehicles powered by electricity; (3) 
bicycles with motors attached; (4) motorcycles; (5) vehicles 
operating with a temporary registration; (6) vehicles manufactured 
twenty-five or more years ago; (7) new vehicles at the time of 
initial registration; (8) vehicles registered but not designed 
primarily for highway use; (9) farm vehicles, as defined in 
subsection (q) of section 14-49; (10) diesel-powered type II school 
buses; (11) a vehicle operated by a licensed dealer or repairer 
either to or from a location of the purchase or sale of such vehicle 
or for the purpose of obtaining an official emissions or safety 
inspection; or (12) vehicles that have met the inspection 
requirements of section 14-103a and are registered by the 
commissioner as composite vehicles.'' Section 14-103a further 
dictates that the commissioner inspect ``[a]ny motor vehicle that 
(1) has been reconstructed, (2) is composed or assembled from the 
several parts of other motor vehicles, (3) the identification and 
body contours of which are so altered that the vehicle no longer 
bears the characteristics of any specific make of motor vehicle, or 
(4) has been declared a total loss by any insurance carrier and 
subsequently reconstructed.'' EPA interprets the exemption in C.G.S. 
section 14-164(c) to apply to all of and only these twelve (12) 
categories.
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II. The California LEV Program

    CARB adopted the first generation of LEV regulations (LEV I) in 
1990, which were effective through the 2003 model year. CARB adopted 
California's second generation LEV regulations (LEV II) following a 
November 1998 hearing. Subsequent to the adoption of the California LEV 
II program in February 2000, EPA adopted separate Federal standards 
known as the Tier 2 regulations (February 10, 2000; 65 FR 6698). In 
December 2000, CARB modified the California LEV II program to take 
advantage of some elements of the Federal Tier 2 regulations to ensure 
that only the cleanest vehicle models would continue to be sold in 
California. EPA granted California a waiver for its LEV II program on 
April 22, 2003 (68 FR 19811).
    The LEV II regulations expanded the scope of the LEV I regulations 
by setting strict fleet-average emission standards for light-duty, 
medium-duty (including sport utility vehicles) and heavy-duty vehicles. 
The standards began with the 2004 model year and increased in 
stringency through the 2010 model year and beyond. The LEV II 
regulations provide flexibility to auto manufacturers by allowing them 
to certify their vehicle models to one of several different emissions 
standards. The different tiers of increasingly stringent LEV II 
emission standards to which a manufacturer may certify a vehicle are: 
Low emission vehicle (LEV), ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV), super-
ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV), partial zero emission vehicle 
(PZEV), advanced technology partial zero emission vehicle (ATPZEV) and 
zero emission vehicle (ZEV).
    The manufacturer must show that the overall fleet for a given model 
year meets the specified phase-in requirements according to the fleet 
average non-methane hydrocarbon requirement for that year. The fleet 
average non-methane hydrocarbon emission limits are progressively lower 
with each model year. The program also requires auto manufacturers to 
include a ``smog index'' label on each vehicle sold, which is intended 
to inform

[[Page 4311]]

consumers about the amount of pollution produced by that vehicle 
relative to other vehicles.
    In addition to meeting the LEV II requirements, large or 
intermediate volume manufacturers must ensure that a certain percentage 
of the passenger cars and lightest light-duty trucks that they market 
in California are ZEVs. This is referred to as the ZEV mandate. 
California has modified the ZEV mandate several times since it took 
effect. Most recently, CARB has put in place an alternative compliance 
program (ACP) to provide auto manufacturers with several options to 
meet the ZEV mandate. The ACP established ZEV credit multipliers to 
allow auto manufacturers to take credit for meeting the ZEV mandate by 
selling more PZEVs and ATPZEVs than they are otherwise required to 
sell. On December 28, 2006, EPA granted California's request for a 
waiver of Federal preemption to enforce provisions of the ZEV 
regulations through model year 2011.
    On October 15, 2005, California amended its LEV II program to 
include greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards for passenger cars, 
light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. On December 21, 
2005, California requested that EPA grant a waiver of preemption under 
CAA section 209(b) for its greenhouse gas emission regulations. On June 
30, 2009, EPA granted CARB's request for a waiver of CAA preemption to 
enforce its greenhouse gas emission standards for model year 2009 and 
later new motor vehicles (July 8, 2009; 74 FR 32744-32784). This 
decision withdrew and replaced EPA's prior denial of the CARB's 
December 21, 2005 waiver request, which was published in the Federal 
Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12156-12169).

III. Relevant EPA and CAA Requirements

    Section 209(a) of the CAA prohibits states from adopting or 
enforcing standards relating to the control of emissions from new motor 
vehicles or new motor vehicle engines. However, under section 209(b) of 
the CAA, EPA shall grant a waiver of the section 209(a) prohibition to 
the State of California unless EPA makes specified findings, thereby 
allowing California to adopt its own motor vehicle emissions standards. 
Other states may adopt California's motor vehicle emission standards 
under section 177 of the CAA.
    For additional information regarding California's motor vehicle 
emission standards and adoption by other states, please see EPA's 
``California Waivers and Authorizations'' Web page at URL address: 
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cafr.htm. This Web site also lists relevant 
Federal Register notices that have been issued by EPA in response to 
California waiver and authorization requests.

A. Waiver Process

    The CAA allows California to seek a waiver of the preemption which 
prohibits states from enacting emission standards for new motor 
vehicles. EPA must grant this waiver before California's rules may be 
enforced. When California files a waiver request, EPA publishes a 
notice for public hearing and written comment in the Federal Register. 
The written comment period remains open for a period of time after the 
public hearing. Once the comment period expires, EPA reviews the 
comments and the Administrator determines whether the requirements for 
obtaining a waiver have been met.
    According to CAA section 209--State Standards, EPA shall grant a 
waiver unless the Administrator finds that California:

--was arbitrary and capricious in its finding that its standards are in 
the aggregate at least as protective of public health and welfare as 
applicable Federal standards;
--does not need such standards to meet compelling and extraordinary 
conditions; or
--proposes standards and accompanying enforcement procedures that are 
not consistent with section 202(a) of the CAA.

    The most recent EPA waiver relevant to EPA's proposed approval of 
Connecticut's LEV program is ``California State Motor Vehicle Pollution 
Control Standards; Notice of Decision Granting a Waiver of Clean Air 
Act Preemption for California's 2009 and Subsequent Model Year 
Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles'' (July 8, 
2009; 74 FR 32744-32784). This final rulemaking allows California to 
establish standards to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from new 
passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty vehicles. The four 
new greenhouse gas air contaminants added to California's existing 
regulations for criteria and criteria-precursor pollutants and air 
toxic contaminants are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane 
(CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and 
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

B. State Adoption of California Standards

    Section 177 of the CAA allows other states to adopt and enforce 
California's standards for the control of emissions from new motor 
vehicles, provided that, among other things, such state standards are 
identical to the California standards for which a waiver has been 
granted under CAA section 209(b). In addition, the state must adopt 
such standards at least two years prior to the commencement of the 
model year to which the standards will apply. EPA issued guidance 
(CISD-07-16) \4\ regarding its cross-border sales policy for 
California-certified vehicles. This guidance includes a list and map of 
states that have adopted California standards, specific to the 2008-
2010 model years. All SIP revisions submitted to EPA for approval must 
also meet the requirements of CAA section 110.
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    \4\ See EPA's October 29, 2007 letter to Manufactures regarding 
``Sales of California-certified 2008-2010 Model Year Vehicles 
(Cross-Border Sales Policy),'' with attachments. Attachment 1--EPA 
Policy on Cross-Border Sales of 2008 to 2010 Model Years California-
Certified Vehicles; Attachment 2--Questions and Answers on EPA's 
Cross Border Sales Policies; and Attachment 3--Updated summary table 
and a set of maps reflecting the status of Section 177 states by 
model year. http://iaspub.epa.gov/otaqpub/display_file.jsp?docid=16888&flag=1.
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    The provisions of Connecticut Public Act 04-84 and section 177 of 
the CAA both require the Connecticut Department of Energy and 
Environmental Protection to amend the Connecticut LEV program at such 
time as the State of California amends its California LEV program. 
Connecticut has demonstrated its commitment to maintain a Connecticut 
LEV program consistent with the California LEV program through the 
adoption of two regulatory amendments to Connecticut's initial LEV 
program.
    EPA notes that a number of California Code of Regulations (CCR) 
Title 13 provisions incorporated-by-reference in section 22a-174-36b 
were amended by California in January of 2010 and became operative 
under California State law on February 13, 2010. As the Connecticut SIP 
revision was submitted to EPA on January 22, 2010, these subsequent 
revisions to California regulations will be addressed by Connecticut at 
a later date.\5\
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    \5\ On August 1, 2013, Connecticut adopted revisions to Section 
22a-174-36b ``Low Emission Vehicle II Program'' and Section 22a-174-
36c ``Low Emission Vehicle III Program.'' These regulations have not 
yet been submitted to EPA as a SIP revision and are not part of 
today's action.
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IV. Level of Emission Reductions This Program Will Achieve

    The Connecticut LEV program is included in Connecticut's February 
1, 2008 8-hour ozone attainment demonstration SIP as a weight-of-

[[Page 4312]]

evidence measure, but Connecticut does not rely on the LEV program for 
any specific level of emission reduction. If EPA finalizes its proposed 
approval of the Connecticut LEV program into the SIP, future emission 
benefit from this program could be calculated through EPA's Motor 
Vehicle Emissions Simulator Model, MOVES2010, which was officially 
released on March 2, 2010 (75 FR 9411).

V. Revisions to the Connecticut Motor Vehicle Inspection Program

    Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies section 22a-174-27 
establishes emissions standards and test requirements for the periodic 
motor vehicle inspection and maintenance program to ensure that EPA-
required air quality benefits are achieved. EPA previously approved 
this motor vehicle inspection and maintenance program into the 
Connecticut SIP. (See December 5, 2008; 73 FR 74019.) On June 25, 2007, 
the Governor of the State of Connecticut signed into law Public Act 07-
167, which the General Assembly adopted on June 4, 2007. Public Act 07-
167 as codified in Connecticut General Statutes section 14-164c(c) 
added a specific exemption for composite vehicles from on-board 
diagnostic inspection, while maintaining that composite vehicles 
continue to be subject to inspection requirements of section 14-103a. 
The amendments to Connecticut General Statutes section 14-164c and its 
corresponding SIP amendments will exempt composite vehicles from unique 
tailpipe emission testing and on-board diagnostic inspection.
    According to the Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles, a 
composite vehicle is defined as, ``Any motor vehicle composed or 
assembled from several parts of other motor vehicles, or the 
identification and body contours of which are so altered that the 
vehicle no longer bears the characteristics of any specific make of 
motor vehicle. Any vehicle not assembled by a manufacturer licensed as 
such in the State of Connecticut is classified as a composite motor 
vehicle.'' Connecticut Inspection and Maintenance Program data 
indicates that in 2007, there were 359 composite motor vehicles in 
Connecticut. After application of existing emission inspection 
exemptions found in 14-164(c) of the Connecticut General Statutes, only 
100 of 359 composite motor vehicles would be required to be inspected 
by the Division of Motor Vehicles each year. Exempting these 100 
vehicles from Connecticut's Inspection and Maintenance program, which 
applies to approximately 1,959,000 vehicles, will not have significant 
air quality impacts.
    During the inspection and maintenance cycle of January 1, 2008 to 
December 31, 2009, 1,934,285 gasoline-powered vehicles and 24,758 
diesel-powered vehicles received initial Connecticut inspection and 
maintenance testing. Exempting the 100 cars, which have all emission-
related components and settings and are subject to all applicable 
emission regulations, from a state emission inspection will not change 
the motor vehicle inspection and maintenance program inputs in 
MOVES2010, nor will it change the resulting motor vehicle emission 
factors generated by MOVES2010. Furthermore, EPA believes removing 
composite motor vehicle from emission testing does not contravene the 
anti-backsliding provisions established in section 110(l) of the CAA.

VI. Proposed Action

    EPA is proposing to approve into the Connecticut SIP Connecticut's 
section 22a-174-36b, Low Emission Vehicle (LEV II) program, which was 
submitted to EPA on January 22, 2010. EPA is also proposing to approve 
section 22a-174-36(i) of the Connecticut State Regulations, which 
eliminates Connecticut's earlier National Low Emission Vehicle (NLEV) 
program and Connecticut's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV I) program and 
replaces them with the Connecticut LEV II program. The Connecticut Low 
Emission Vehicle II program adopted by Connecticut includes: The 
California LEV II light-duty program beginning with model year 2008; 
the California LEV II medium-duty vehicle emission standards beginning 
with model year 2009; the California LEV II green house gas emission 
standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty 
passenger vehicles commencing with 2009 model year vehicles; 
environmental performance labeling (with labels containing both smog 
scores and global warming scores) for 2008 model year and later 
vehicles; and the California ZEV provision. EPA is proposing to approve 
the Connecticut LEV II program requirements into the SIP because EPA 
has found that the requirements are consistent with the CAA.
    Finally, EPA is proposing to remove Connecticut's section 22a-174-
27(b)(3), the definition of composite motor vehicle, and section 22a-
174-27(e), the maximum allowable composite motor vehicle emissions, 
from the Connecticut SIP. Composite motor vehicles were eliminated from 
Connecticut's motor vehicle emission inspection program in 2007, 
consistent with Public Act 07-167 as codified in section 14-164c(c) of 
the General Statute of Connecticut.
    EPA is soliciting public comments on the issues discussed in this 
notice or on other relevant matters. These comments will be considered 
before taking final action. Interested parties may participate in the 
Federal rulemaking procedure by submitting written comments to the EPA 
New England Regional Office listed in the ADDRESSES section of this 
Federal Register.

VII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    Under the Clean Air Act, the Administrator is required to approve a 
SIP submission that complies with the provisions of the Act and 
applicable Federal regulations. 42 U.S.C. 7410(k); 40 CFR 52.02(a). 
Thus, in reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state 
choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the Clean Air Act. 
Accordingly, this proposed action merely approves state law as meeting 
Federal requirements and does not impose additional requirements beyond 
those imposed by state law. For that reason, this proposed action:
     Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to 
review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 
12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993);
     does not impose an information collection burden under the 
provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.);
     is certified as not having a significant economic impact 
on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory 
Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);
     does not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or 
uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded 
Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4);
     does not have Federalism implications as specified in 
Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999);
     is not an economically significant regulatory action based 
on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 
19885, April 23, 1997);
     is not a significant regulatory action subject to 
Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001);
     is not subject to requirements of Section 12(d) of the 
National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 
note) because application of those requirements would be inconsistent 
with the Clean Air Act; and

[[Page 4313]]

     does not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to 
address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental 
effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under 
Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).
In addition, this rule does not have tribal implications as specified 
by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), because the 
SIP is not approved to apply in Indian country located in the state, 
and EPA notes that it will not impose substantial direct costs on 
tribal governments or preempt tribal law.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52

    Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, 
Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead, Nitrogen 
dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements, Sulfur oxides, Volatile organic compounds.

    Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.

    Dated: January 15, 2014.
H. Curtis Spalding,
Regional Administrator, EPA New England.
[FR Doc. 2014-01502 Filed 1-24-14; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P



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