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Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Programs

American Government Special Collections Reference Desk

American Government

Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Programs

Jared Blumenfeld
November 5, 2012


[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 214 (Monday, November 5, 2012)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 66422-66429]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2012-26977]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 52

[EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0552; FRL-9748-9]


Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Motor 
Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Programs

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve three revisions to the Arizona 
State Implementation Plan submitted by the Arizona Department of 
Environmental Quality. Two of these revisions relate to an amendment to 
Arizona's Basic and Enhanced Vehicle Emissions Inspection Programs that 
would exempt motorcycles in the Phoenix metropolitan area from 
emissions testing requirements. The third revision would expand the 
geographic area in which various air quality control measures, 
including the vehicle emissions inspection program but also including 
other control measures, apply in the Phoenix metropolitan area. EPA is 
proposing approval of these SIP revisions because we have found that 
they meet all applicable requirements and would not interfere with 
reasonable further progress or attainment of any of the national 
ambient air quality standards. EPA is proposing this action under the 
Clean Air Act obligation to take action on State submittals of 
revisions to state implementation plans.

DATES: Written comments must be received on or before December 5, 2012.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket No. EPA-R09-OAR-
2011-0552, by one of the following methods:
    1. Federal Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. Follow 
the on-line instructions for submitting comments.
    2. Email: Jeffrey Buss at buss.jeffrey@epa.gov.
    3. Fax: Jeffrey Buss, Air Planning Office (AIR-2), at fax number 
415-947-3579.
    4. Mail: Jeffrey Buss, Air Planning Office (AIR-2), U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX, 75 Hawthorne, San 
Francisco, California 94105.
    5. Hand or Courier Delivery: Jeffrey Buss, Air Planning Section 
(AIR-2), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX, 75 Hawthorne, 
San Francisco, California 94105. Such deliveries are only accepted 
during the Regional Office's normal hours of operation. Special 
arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information.
    Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R09-OAR-
2011-0552. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included 
in the public docket without change and may be made available online at 
www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, 
unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential 
Business Information (CBI) or other information the disclosure of which 
is restricted by statute. Do not submit information through 
www.regulations.gov or email that you consider to be CBI or otherwise 
protected from disclosure. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an 
anonymous access system, which means EPA will not know your identity or 
contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. 
If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through 
www.regulations.gov, your email address will be automatically captured 
and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket 
and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic 
comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact 
information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you 
submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties 
and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to 
consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special 
characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or 
viruses.
    Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the 
www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some 
information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information 
whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such 
as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. 
Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically 
in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air Planning Office (AIR-
2), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX, 75 Hawthorne 
Street, San Francisco, California 94105. EPA requests that if at all 
possible, you contact the person listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
CONTACT section to schedule your inspection during normal business 
hours.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Buss, Office of Air Planning, 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9, (415) 947-4152, email: 
buss.jeffrey@epa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document, the terms ``we,'' 
``us,'' and ``our'' refer to EPA.

Table of Contents

I. Introduction and Background
II. Summary of Arizona's SIP Submittals
III. EPA Review of the SIP Revisions
    A. CAA Procedural Provisions
    B. I/M Program Requirements
    1. Geographic Coverage
    2. Vehicle Coverage and Exemptions
    3. Compliance Enforcement
    4. Performance Evaluation
    C. Demonstrating Noninterference With Attainment and Maintenance 
Under CAA Section 110(l)
    1. Ozone
    2. Carbon Monoxide
    3. Particulate Matter
    4. Air Toxics
    5. Conclusion
IV. EPA's Proposed Action and Request for Public Comment
V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

I. Introduction and Background

    In May 1995, EPA approved Arizona's Basic and Enhanced Vehicle 
Emissions Inspection/Maintenance (VEI) Programs as a revision to the 
Arizona State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act, as 
amended in 1990 (CAA or ``Act'') and EPA's motor vehicle inspection and 
maintenance rule (``EPA's I/M rule'' or ``federal I/M rule'') as 
amended. See 60 FR 22518 (May 8, 1995). A ``basic'' I/M program was 
required in the Phoenix metropolitan area (referred to as ``Area A'') 
due to the area's designation as a ``moderate'' nonattainment area for 
the carbon monoxide (CO) and the 1-hour ozone national ambient air 
quality standards (NAAQS or ``standard'').\1\ The VEI program was 
designed to reduce emissions of CO, volatile organic compounds (VOC) 
and oxides of nitrogen (NOX).\2\ At that time, although

[[Page 66423]]

it was not required to have an ``enhanced'' I/M program, Arizona was 
implementing most elements of an enhanced program in Phoenix. Arizona's 
program, as implemented in Phoenix, however, was not approved as an 
enhanced program, because the program did not satisfy all the 
requirements in EPA's I/M rule for enhanced programs. An enhanced I/M 
program became a requirement for the Phoenix area when the area was 
reclassified from ``moderate'' nonattainment to ``serious'' 
nonattainment for the CO NAAQS effective August 28, 1996 (61 FR 39343, 
July 29, 1996), and when the area was reclassified from ``moderate'' 
nonattainment to ``serious'' nonattainment for the 1-hour ozone NAAQS 
effective February 13, 1998 (63 FR 7290 February 13, 1998).
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    \1\ The Phoenix metropolitan area is also a nonattainment area 
for respirable particulate matter (PM10); however, the 
VEI program plays a very minor role in the control strategy for this 
pollutant. There is no CAA requirement for I/M programs in 
PM10 nonattainment areas and no PM10 reduction 
credited from EPA's emission models, MOBILE 6.2 or MOVES.
    \2\ VOC and NOX are precursors to ozone formation in 
the atmosphere under the influence of sunlight and meteorology.
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    Since the Arizona VEI programs were originally approved in May 
1995, EPA has amended the federal I/M rule several times to provide 
states with more flexibility in designing their programs but also to 
require testing of the on-board diagnostic (OBD) system. Since that 
time, Arizona has also made a number of changes to its enhanced and 
basic VEI programs.
    In January 2003, we approved changes to the Arizona VEI programs 
submitted to us on July 6, 2001 and April 10, 2002, including the 
incorporation of OBD testing, an exemption for the first five model 
year vehicles from the programs on a rolling basis, replacement of the 
previously-approved remote sensing program in Phoenix with an on-road 
testing study, and legislative changes to the waiver provisions. See 68 
FR 2912 (January 22, 2003). In our January 2003 final rule, we also 
approved the VEI program in the Phoenix area as meeting the enhanced I/
M program performance standard.
    In our January 2003 final rule, we also approved an expansion of 
the geographic area in which the VEI program in the Phoenix area 
applies, an area referred to as ``Area A.'' Area A, as approved in 
2003, includes all of the metropolitan Phoenix carbon monoxide and 1-
hour ozone nonattainment areas plus additional areas in Maricopa County 
to the north, east, and west, as well as a small portion of Yavapai 
County and the western portions of Pinal County. ``Area A'' is also 
used by the State of Arizona to identify the applicable area for 
implementation of a number of other air pollution control measures, 
including but not limited to the EPA-approved cleaner burning gasoline 
(CBG) and stage II vapor recovery programs. See, e.g., 69 FR 10161 
(March 4, 2004) (approval of CBG program), and 77 FR 35279 (June 13, 
2012) (approval of revised Stage II vapor recovery program). ``Area A'' 
is defined at Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) section 49-541, subsection 
(1).
    In April 2004, we published a final rule governing the transition 
from the 1-hour ozone NAAQS to the 8-hour ozone standard that we 
promulgated in 1997. See 69 FR 23951 (April 30, 2004).\3\ Under our 
April 2004 final rule, we established certain ``anti-backsliding 
requirements'' that would continue to apply to 8-hour ozone 
nonattainment areas based on an area's designation and classification 
for the 1-hour ozone standard at the time of designation for the 1997 
8-hour ozone standard, even after revocation of the 1-hour ozone 
standard. The I/M program requirement was included in the list of such 
``anti-backsliding'' requirements. See 40 CFR 51.900(f)(2) and 
51.905(a)(1)(i).
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    \3\ In 1997, EPA promulgated an 8-hour ozone standard [0.08 
parts per million (ppm)] to replace the 1-hour ozone standard. The 
1-hour ozone standard was revoked effective June 15, 2005.
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    In April 2004, we published a second final rule related to ozone, 
and in this other rule, we designated the Phoenix-Mesa area as a 
nonattainment area for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, 69 FR 23858, at 
23878 (April 30, 2004), and, later, classified the area as ``Subpart 2/
Marginal'' for that standard, 77 FR 28424 (May 14, 2012). Thus, the 
requirement to continue to implement an enhanced I/M program continues 
to apply in the Phoenix metropolitan area based the area's designation 
and classification for the 1-hour ozone standard notwithstanding 
revocation of the 1-hour ozone standard in June 2005.
    In 2005, we approved maintenance plans and redesignation requests 
for both the carbon monoxide and 1-hour ozone standards in the Phoenix 
area. See 70 FR 11553 (March 9, 2005) (carbon monoxide redesignation 
request and maintenance plan approval), and 70 FR 34362 (June 14, 2005) 
(1-hour ozone redesignation request and maintenance plan approval). 
Both approved maintenance plans include ``Expansion of Area A 
Boundaries'' as a contingency measure.\4\ In these plans, ``Expansion 
of Area A Boundaries'' refers to an amendment to the definition of Area 
A in ARS 49-541 that was made by the Arizona Legislature in 2001 to 
expand the boundaries of this area beyond the boundaries approved by 
EPA in 2003 to add portions of Maricopa County west of Goodyear and 
Peoria and a small piece of land on the north side of Lake Pleasant in 
Yavapai County. In light of the fact that the Legislature had already 
acted, the two maintenance plans noted that ``Expansion of Area A'' was 
an example of ``early implementation'' of a contingency measure.
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    \4\ See page ES-6 of the Maricopa Association of Government's 
(MAG's) Carbon Monoxide Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan 
for the Maricopa County Nonattainment Area (May 2003) and page ES-9 
of MAG's One-Hour Ozone Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan 
for the Maricopa County Nonattainment Area (March 2004).
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    In March 2007, we approved changes to the Arizona VEI programs 
submitted to us on December 23, 2005 and October 3, 2006, including an 
exemption for collectible vehicles from VEI testing in the Phoenix 
metropolitan area, and collectible vehicles and motorcycles from VEI 
testing in the Tucson metropolitan area. See 72 FR 15046 (March 30, 
2007). In our March 2007 rule, we also approved an updated performance 
evaluation standard for the VEI program in the Phoenix area; and new 
contingency measures.
    On June 13, 2007, ADEQ submitted the Eight-Hour Ozone Plan for the 
Maricopa Nonattainment Area (June 2007) (``Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour 
Ozone Attainment Plan'') to demonstrate attainment of the 1997 8-hour 
ozone standard in the Phoenix-Mesa nonattainment area by June 2009. 
Similar to the carbon monoxide and 1-hour ozone maintenance plans, the 
Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Attainment Plan does not take emissions 
reduction credit for ``Expansion of Area A Boundaries'' to demonstrate 
attainment or maintenance but lists ``Expansion of Area A Boundaries'' 
as a contingency measure. We approved the plan at 77 FR 35285 (June 13, 
2012). As a contingency measure, ADEQ estimated that ``Expansion of 
Area A Boundaries'' would reduce VOC emissions by approximately 1.3 
metric tons per day by increasing the number of vehicles subject to the 
VEI program.\5\
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    \5\ See pages V-20 and V-21 of exhibit 2 (``Technical Support 
Document for Ozone Modeling in Support of the Eight-Hour Ozone Plan 
for the Maricopa Nonattainment Area'') of appendix A to the Phoenix-
Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Attainment Plan.
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    In March 2009, ADEQ submitted the MAG Eight-Hour Ozone 
Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan for the Maricopa 
Nonattainment Area (February 2009) (``Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone 
Maintenance Plan'') to demonstrate the criteria for redesignation to 
``attainment'' have been satisfied and to demonstrate maintenance of 
the 1997 8-hour ozone standard through year 2025. Unlike the previous 
plans, the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan includes 
``Expansion of Area A Boundaries'' as a measure for which credit is 
taken to

[[Page 66424]]

demonstrate maintenance of the 1997 8-hour ozone standard through 
2025.\6\ The maintenance demonstration in the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour 
Ozone Maintenance Plan specifically excludes motorcycles from the 
calculated emissions reductions from the VEI.\7\
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    \6\ See page ES-4 of the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone 
Maintenance Plan.
    \7\ See page 3-12 of the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone 
Maintenance Plan.
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    We have not yet taken action on the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone 
Maintenance Plan and do not propose action related to that plan herein. 
However, today's proposed approval of the expansion of Area A 
boundaries, as codified in amended ARS 49-541(1) and submitted on May 
25, 2012 in connection with the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent 
Plan (discussed in the following section of this document), provides 
support for the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan given 
its reliance on the expansion of Area A boundaries in maintaining the 
1997 8-hour ozone standard once the area is redesignated. EPA will take 
action on the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan in one or 
more future rulemakings.
    Lastly, in March 2008, EPA revised the 8-hour ozone standard to 
0.075 parts per million (ppm). See 73 FR 16436 (March 27, 2008). More 
recently, we designated the Phoenix-Mesa area as a ``Marginal'' 
nonattainment area for the 2008 ozone standard, effective July 20, 
2012. See 77 FR 30088 (May 21, 2012). Such ``Marginal'' nonattainment 
areas must attain the standard as expeditiously as practicable but not 
later than July 20, 2015 (i.e., 3 years from July 20, 2012, the 
effective date of the nonattainment designation).

II. Summary of Arizona's SIP Submittals

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) submitted 
the most recent statutory changes to its Basic and Enhanced VEI 
Programs as a revision to the Arizona State Implementation Plan (SIP) 
on November 6, 2009 (``2009 VEI SIP Revision''). The 2009 VEI SIP 
Revision submittal includes the SIP revision itself, divided into a 
non-regulatory portion, ``Final Arizona State Implementation Plan 
Revision, Exemption of Motorcycles from Vehicle Emissions Inspection/
Maintenance Requirements in Area A'' (October 2009), and a regulatory 
portion, House Bill (HB) 2280, as well as supporting materials related 
to legal authority, adoption, public process and technical analysis.
    HB 2280 amends the Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) Section 49-542 by 
exempting motorcycles from emissions testing in Area A (i.e., the 
Phoenix area). Specifically, the amendments to ARS 49-542 are found in 
paragraphs or subparagraphs (F)(2)(e), (F)(3), (J)(2)(l), and (K) of 
that section of code. The changes to ARS Section 49-542 are self-
implementing, which means that they become effective upon EPA approval 
as a revision to the Arizona SIP. Section 2 of HB 2280 provides that 
the exemption becomes effective upon EPA approval of a SIP revision on 
or before July 10, 2010.
    In consultation with EPA concerning the VEI SIP Revision, ADEQ 
prepared additional information regarding the impacts of the motorcycle 
exemption on attainment of the 2008 8-hour ozone NAAQS and the 1987 
PM10 NAAQS. On January 11, 2011, ADEQ adopted and submitted 
the additional information and a replacement measure in a supplemental 
SIP revision, entitled, ``Addendum to the Arizona State Implementation 
Plan Revision, Exemption of Motorcycles from Vehicle Emissions 
Inspections and Maintenance Program Requirements in Area A, October 
2009'' (December 2010) (``2011 VEI SIP Addendum''). In the cover letter 
to the 2011 VEI SIP Addendum, ADEQ indicated that, through House Bill 
2033 adopted in April 2010, the Arizona Legislature had extended the 
date authorizing the motorcycle exemption to July 2012.\8\ Also, as 
part of the submittal of the 2011 VEI SIP Addendum, ADEQ documented the 
public participation process that was conducted by ADEQ prior to 
adoption and submittal of the Addendum to EPA.
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    \8\ Through House Bill 2073 in 2012, the Arizona Legislature has 
further extended the date authorizing the motorcycle exemption to 
July 2014.
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    On May 25, 2012, ADEQ submitted the MAG 2012 Five Percent Plan for 
PM-10 for the Maricopa County Nonattainment Area (May 2012) (``2012 
Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan''). The 2012 PM-10 Phoenix Area 
Five Percent Plan was submitted to provide for attainment of the 
PM10 standard and an annual reduction in PM10 
emissions within the area of not less than five percent until 
attainment of the standard. Among the statutes submitted as part of the 
2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan for approval as part of the 
Arizona SIP is ARS 49-541(1), which establishes the boundaries of Area 
A as expanded by the Arizona Legislature in 2001.\9\ As noted, several 
previous plans for the Phoenix area had included ``Expansion of Area A 
Boundaries'' as a contingency measure, but the more recent submitted 
plans, including the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan and 
the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan, rely on it as part of 
the long-term control or maintenance strategy. With respect to ADEQ's 
May 25, 2012 SIP revision submittal of the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five 
Percent Plan, EPA is proposing action only on the amended statutory 
provision that expands the boundaries of Area A [i.e., amended ARS 49-
541(1)]. EPA will take action on the rest of the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-
10 Five Percent Plan in one or more future rulemakings.
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    \9\ See exhibit 1 in Appendix C to the 2012 PM-10 Five Percent 
Plan.
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III. EPA Review of the SIP Revisions

A. CAA Procedural Provisions

    CAA section 110(l) requires revisions to a SIP to be adopted by the 
state after reasonable notice and public hearing. EPA has promulgated 
specific requirements for SIP revisions in 40 CFR part 51, subpart F.
    On September 14 and 15, 2009, ADEQ published notices in newspapers 
of general circulation in the Phoenix area of public hearings on 
proposed revisions to the Arizona SIP to exempt motorcycles in Phoenix 
from emissions testing requirements under the Arizona VEI programs 
(i.e., a draft VEI SIP Revision). Public hearings were held on October 
15, 2009 in Phoenix. On November 6, 2009, in accordance with Arizona 
law, ADEQ adopted these exemptions as set forth in ``Final Arizona 
State Implementation Plan Revision, Exemption of Motorcycles from 
Vehicle Emissions Inspection/Maintenance Requirements in Area A'' 
(October 2009) as a revision to the Arizona SIP and submitted the 
revision to EPA for approval.
    ADEQ followed a similar process in adopting and submitting the 2011 
VEI SIP Addendum. ADEQ held a public hearing on December 15, 2010 in 
Phoenix on a draft VEI SIP Addendum and adopted the VEI SIP Addendum on 
January 11, 2011 in accordance with Arizona law prior to submittal to 
EPA as a revision to the Arizona SIP.
    ADEQ also provided for public comment and hearing of the 2012 
Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan. Specifically, ADEQ published 
notice of the start of a 30-day comment period on March 12, 2012. In 
this notice, ADEQ also provided notice of a public hearing that was, as 
scheduled, held on April 12, 2012. See exhibit 1 (``Public Hearing 
Process Documentation'') to appendix E to the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 
Five Percent Plan.

[[Page 66425]]

    ADEQ's 2009 VEI SIP Revision, 2011 VEI SIP Addendum, and 2012 
Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan submittal packages include 
evidence of public notice and hearing, ADEQ responses to public 
comments, and ADEQ adoption as described above, and, based on review of 
these materials, we find that ADEQ has met the procedural requirements 
of CAA section 110(l) and 40 CFR part 51, subpart F.

B. I/M Program Requirements

    As noted in Section I, Introduction and Background, herein, 
Arizona's VEI programs were most recently approved as meeting federal 
I/M program requirements on March 30, 2007 (72 FR 15046). Although the 
Phoenix and Tucson areas have been redesignated to ``attainment'' for 
the CO NAAQS, the VEI programs continue to be relied upon to maintain 
the CO standard in those areas. Moreover, ``enhanced'' I/M remains an 
``applicable requirement'' for the Phoenix area under our final rule 
implementing the 8-hour ozone NAAQS (see 40 CFR 51.900(f) and 
51.905(a)(1)) based on the designation of that area as a nonattainment 
area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS (and designation as nonattainment for 
the 1-hour ozone NAAQS at the time of designation for the 8-hour 
standard). Thus, to be approved, the VEI programs, as amended and 
evaluated herein, must continue to meet the relevant enforceability 
requirements for I/M programs in subpart S of 40 CFR part 51 and, for 
the Phoenix area with respect to ozone, the enhanced performance 
standard in 40 CFR 51.351. In the following paragraphs, we review 
ADEQ's 2009 VEI SIP Revision and 2011 VEI SIP Addendum to determine 
whether the amended VEI programs continue to meet federal I/M program 
requirements.
    The aspects of I/M affected by the submitted revisions to the VEI 
programs and the expansion of Area A boundaries include geographic 
coverage, vehicle coverage and exemptions, compliance enforcement, and 
the performance standard evaluation.
1. Geographic Coverage
    EPA's I/M regulations require that state I/M programs be 
implemented in the entire urbanized area, based on the 1990 census. See 
40 CFR 51.350. We have found in our approvals of the Arizona VEI 
program in 1995 and 2003 that the geographic coverage of the VEI 
program in the Phoenix area meets the minimum requirements of EPA's I/M 
regulations. Since then, no regulatory changes or new designations have 
changed the minimum requirements with respect to the geographic 
coverage of the I/M program in the Phoenix area, and thus, the 
expansion of the boundaries of Area A, which define the area in which 
the VEI program is implemented, is also acceptable.
2. Vehicle Coverage and Exemptions
    The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs (including 
alternate low enhanced programs) assumes coverage of all 1968 and later 
model year light duty vehicles and trucks. Light duty trucks are not 
included in the performance standard for basic I/M programs. Other 
levels of coverage may be approved if the necessary emission reductions 
are achieved. See 40 CFR 51.356.
    The Arizona VEI programs approved by EPA in 1995 exempt several 
categories of vehicles from the emissions testing requirements. Such 
vehicle categories included, among others, vehicles manufactured in or 
before the 1966 model year and vehicles being sold between motor 
vehicle dealers. See 60 FR 22518, 22521 (May 8, 1995). In 2003, we 
approved revisions to the VEI programs including an exemption for the 
first five model year vehicles on a rolling basis. See 68 FR 2912 
(January 22, 2003). In 2007, we exempted collectible vehicles from the 
Phoenix and Tucson areas and motorcycles from the Tucson area. The SIP 
revision we are acting on today would establish an additional vehicle 
category that would be exempt from emissions testing requirements: 
Motorcycles from the Phoenix area. Based on data for calendar year 
2008, motorcycles make up approximately 38,100 (or 3.7 percent) of the 
1,027,600 total number of vehicles subject to VEI in the Phoenix area. 
See table 9 on page 17 of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision.
    Basic and enhanced I/M programs are not required to test any 
particular category of motor vehicles so long as the performance 
standard is met, and thus I/M programs are not required to test 
motorcycles. The effect of the new exemption for motorcycles on the 
continued ability of the VEI program in the Phoenix area to meet the 
enhanced I/M program performance standard is discussed below in Section 
III.B.3, ``Performance Evaluation,'' and the effect of the new 
exemptions on emissions and ambient air quality in Phoenix is discussed 
herein in Section III.C, ``Demonstrating Noninterference With 
Attainment And Maintenance Under CAA Section 110(l).''
3. Compliance Enforcement
    Section 51.361 of title 40 of the CFR requires that denial of motor 
vehicle registration be the method used to ensure compliance with 
enhanced I/M programs. ARS Section 49-542(D) and Arizona Administrative 
Code (AAC) R18-2-1007 requires that all vehicles must complete a 
vehicle emissions inspection to obtain a vehicle registration.
    Exemption of motorcycles in the Phoenix area from emissions testing 
would be straightforward from the standpoint of compliance enforcement 
and would not undermine compliance enforcement for other types of 
vehicles that continue to be subject to the emissions testing 
requirements under the VEI program in the Phoenix area. Owners of 
motorcycles registered in the Phoenix area will simply receive a 
registration or re-registration form from the Arizona Department of 
Transportation, Motor Vehicle Division that indicates ``emissions test 
not required.''
    Therefore, we find that the Arizona VEI programs, as amended to 
exempt motorcycles in the Phoenix area, would continue to meet the 
compliance enforcement requirements of 40 CFR 51.361.
4. Performance Evaluation
    As part of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision submittal, ADEQ provided an 
updated performance evaluation using the EPA's motor vehicle emissions 
model, MOBILE6.2.\10\ The updated performance evaluation included a 
summary report and paper copies of MOBILE6.2 input and output files. 
The purpose of the updated performance evaluation is to determine 
whether the VEI program, as amended to exempt motorcycles, would 
continue to meet the federal enhanced I/M performance standard 
(codified at 40 CFR 51.351) in the Phoenix area. The need for an 
updated performance evaluation follows from the fact that the Phoenix 
area, which was designated as nonattainment for the 1-hour ozone NAAQS 
(at the time of designation for the 8-hour ozone nonattainment), is 
designated as nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS and that 
enhanced I/M remains an ``applicable requirement'' for such areas under 
our final rule implementing the 8-hour ozone NAAQS [see 40 CFR 
51.900(f) and 51.905(a)(1)].
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    \10\ ADEQ submitted the 2009 VEI SIP Revision prior to the 
availability and requirement to use EPA's Motor Vehicle Emissions 
Simulator model ``MOVES2010''. While ADEQ's 2011 VEI SIP Addendum 
was submitted after the availability of MOVES2010, we did not 
require the use of the new MOVES2010 model because significant work 
had already begun on the SIP revision. See 75 FR 9411 (March 2, 
2010).
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    For the updated evaluation, ADEQ developed and applied reduction 
factors

[[Page 66426]]

to exclude motorcycles from the fleet tested under the VEI program as 
provided for in HB 2280. ADEQ then compared the emissions reduction 
benefits from the revised VEI program with the corresponding benefits 
that would be achieved under EPA's alternate low enhanced I/M 
performance standard.
    The results of ADEQ's analysis are summarized in Table 1 below, 
which shows that the emissions reduction benefits achieved by the 
Phoenix VEI program as amended are higher than those achieved under the 
performance standard. The amended Phoenix VEI program thus continues to 
achieve greater emissions reductions than the federal model program 
because the VEI program includes elements that go beyond federal I/M 
requirements. These include a requirement for a one-time only waiver, 
an implementation area beyond the nonattainment area boundaries, and 
denial of waivers for grossly-emitting vehicles.

                                   Table 1--Results of ADEQ's Alternate Low Enhanced Performance Standard Modeling \a\
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               2002                                            2008
                                                         -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                VOC             NOX             CO              VOC             NOX             CO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I/M Benefits in Area A (grams/mile).....................           0.201           0.109           2.938           0.088           0.101           1.579
I/M Performance Standard benefits (grams/mile)..........           0.152           0.026           2.262           0.056           0.006           1.160
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ The emission rates in this table represent the difference between the fleet-wide emission rate under the applicable program (i.e., amended Arizona
  VEI program or EPA's I/M model program) and the corresponding emission rate under the no-I/M scenario. See Table 8 on page 16 of the 2009 VEI SIP
  Revision.

    Based on our review of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision, we find ADEQ's 
methods used to update the performance standard evaluation and use of 
the alternate low enhanced I/M performance standard to be acceptable, 
and we find that the VEI program, as amended to exempt motorcycles in 
the Phoenix area from the emissions testing requirements, exceeds the 
alternate low enhanced I/M performance standard in the Phoenix area as 
required under 40 CFR 51.351 and 51.905(a)(1).

C. Demonstrating Noninterference With Attainment and Maintenance Under 
CAA Section 110(l)

    Revisions to SIP-approved control measures must meet the 
requirements of Clean Air Act section 110(l) to be approved by EPA. 
Section 110(l) states in relevant part: ``The Administrator shall not 
approve a revision of a plan if the revision would interfere with any 
applicable requirement concerning attainment and reasonable further 
progress (as defined in section 171), or any other applicable 
requirement of this Act.''
    We interpret section 110(l) to apply to all requirements of the CAA 
and to all areas of the country, whether attainment, nonattainment, 
unclassifiable, or maintenance for one or more of the six criteria 
pollutants. We also interpret section 110(l) to require a demonstration 
addressing all pollutants whose emissions and/or ambient concentrations 
may change as a result of the SIP revision. Thus, for example, 
modification of a SIP-approved measure may impact NOX 
emissions, which may impact ozone and PM2.5. The scope and 
rigor of an adequate section 110(l) demonstration of noninterference 
depends on the air quality status of the area, the potential impact of 
the revision on air quality, the pollutant(s) affected, and the nature 
of the applicable CAA requirements.
    The 2009 VEI SIP Revision submittal that seeks exemption of 
motorcycles from the Phoenix enhanced I/M program includes an 
evaluation of the effects of the revision to the VEI programs on ozone, 
carbon monoxide, PM2.5, and PM10 within the 
Phoenix metropolitan area. The details of ADEQ's evaluation of the 
emissions effects and related ambient air quality impacts of the new 
exemptions are contained in ``Technical Support Document for Evaluating 
Emissions Impacts of Exempting Motorcycles from Vehicle Emissions 
Inspections and Comparing Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Emission 
Reduction Benefits in Area A with the EPA Enhanced I/M Performance 
Standard (August 19, 2009)'' (``2009 Report''), which was included as 
Appendix B to the 2009 VEI SIP Revision.
    The 2009 report indicates that ADEQ used the EPA's motor vehicle 
emissions model program, MOBILE6.2, to estimate the emissions effects 
of the new exemptions. The methods used to gather data included 
acquisition of data from the State vehicle emissions inspections 
programs, other state agencies, air quality planning agencies and 
relevant air quality plans. We find that ADEQ used reasonable methods 
and appropriate models in estimating the emissions effects of the new 
exemptions. Table 2 below summarizes ADEQ's estimates by pollutant in 
units of metric tons per day (mtpd). Table 2 also shows the emissions 
impact as a percentage of the overall pollutant-specific inventory in 
the applicable area.

              Table 2--VOC and CO Emissions Increases Associated With the 2009 VEI SIP Revision \a\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    I/M benefit
                                                                     Area-wide         from         Percent of
                            Pollutant                                  total        motorcycle    areawide total
                                                                     emissions       test and        emissions
                                                                      (mtpd)       repair (mtpd)     inventory
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Volatile Organic Compounds......................................           606.7           0.056           0.009
Carbon Monoxide.................................................           912.3           0.246           0.027
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ I/M Benefit = the reduction in on-road emissions due to the motorcycle exemption in Area A. See pages 7 and
  12 of 2009 VEI SIP Revision.


[[Page 66427]]

1. Ozone
    Ozone is formed by the interaction of directly-emitted precursor 
emissions, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen 
(NOX), as influenced by the meteorological and topographical 
features of an area.
    As noted above, in 2004, EPA designated the Phoenix area as a 
nonattainment area for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, 69 FR 23858 
(April 30, 2004), and in 2012, designated the Phoenix area as a 
nonattainment area for the 2008 8-hour ozone standard, 77 FR 30088 (May 
21, 2012).
    As indicated in Table 2 above, based on ADEQ's estimates, the 
revision to the 2009 VEI program in Phoenix would increase VOC 
emissions by approximately 0.056 metric tons per day, which represents 
approximately 0.009% of the overall VOC emissions inventory in this 
area under existing conditions. ADEQ did not estimate NOX 
emissions, but we agree with ADEQ's assertion that repairs to vehicles 
to reduce VOC and CO emissions often result in an incremental increase 
in NOX emissions and, thus, discontinuance of such repairs 
(e.g., through an exemption) could result in an incremental decrease in 
such emissions.
    While minor, the incremental increase in VOC emissions due to the 
motorcycle exemption would occur in an area that is violating the 2008 
ozone standard based on the design value for 2008-2010.
    ADEQ's 2011 VEI SIP Addendum includes a measure that is intended to 
substitute for the foregone VOC emissions reductions from the 
motorcycle exemption and to thereby provide a basis to find that the 
2009 VEI SIP Revision would not interfere with attainment of the 2008 
ozone standard. The measure identified as the substitute is a 2008 EPA 
rule for aerosol coatings (spray paints and coatings) (``coatings 
rule''). See 73 FR 15604 (March 24, 2008) 74 FR 29595 (June 23, 2009). 
The compliance date for the 2008 EPA coatings rule was July 1, 2009. 
The designation of the Phoenix-Mesa area as a ``marginal'' 
nonattainment for the 2008 ozone NAAQS reflects ambient data from 
calendar years 2008-2010, and thus reflects in part the VOC emission 
reduction benefit from the 2008 EPA coatings rule and still the Phoenix 
area appears to be violating the 2008 ozone standard. Thus, with the 
information available at the present time, we cannot conclude that the 
coatings rule would offset the VOC emissions increases estimated to 
occur due to the motorcycle exemption. However, we find that the 
expansion of the boundaries of Area A, as submitted in regulatory form 
in ADEQ's submittal dated May 25, 2012, would more than offset the 
incremental increase in VOC emissions.
    As noted above, the estimated benefit of ``Expansion of Area A 
Boundaries'' would be approximately 1.3 metric tons per day of VOC due 
to the extension of the applicability of the VEI program to areas not 
otherwise subject to the program.\11\ In contrast, the incremental 
increase in VOC emissions due to the motorcycle exemption is estimated 
by ADEQ to be less than 0.1 metric tons per day (or more specifically, 
0.056 mtpd). Thus, we find that exempting motorcycles from emissions 
testing under the VEI program, together with expanding the boundaries 
of Area A, would not interfere with attainment or maintenance of the 
ozone NAAQS in the Phoenix area.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \11\ See page 5-16 of the approved Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone 
Attainment Plan, and footnote 5 included in this action.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Carbon Monoxide
    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion of 
fuels. In most urban areas, most of the CO comes from motor vehicle 
exhaust.
    In 2005, EPA redesignated the Phoenix area for CO, and approved a 
maintenance plan that provides for maintenance of the CO NAAQS in that 
area through 2015. See 70 FR 11553 (March 9, 2005) and 70 FR 52926 
(September 6, 2005).
    As indicated in Table 2 above, based on ADEQ's estimates, the 
motorcycle exemption would increase CO emissions by approximately 0.246 
metric tons per day, which represents approximately 0.027% of the 
overall CO emissions inventory in this area under existing conditions. 
This incremental increase would be more than offset by the expansion of 
Area A boundaries.\12\ Moreover, the net reduction in CO emissions due 
to these SIP revisions would occur in an area where overall CO 
emissions are expected to remain relatively constant over the next 10 
years and where ambient CO levels are well below the NAAQS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \12\ On page ES-8 of MAG's Carbon Monoxide Redesignation Request 
and Maintenance Plan for the Maricopa County Nonattainment Area (May 
2003), MAG estimates that Area A Expansion would reduce area-wide CO 
emissions by 0.1%.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Specifically, overall CO emissions are expected to decrease by only 
1% between 2006 and 2015,\13\ and the highest second-highest value 
(i.e., the basis for the NAAQS) collected among the 14 stations 
comprising the CO monitoring network in the Phoenix area is 4.6 ppm, 
eight-hour average, or less than 55% of the 8-hour CO NAAQS (based on 
2006-2007 data).\14\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \13\ See MAG's Carbon Monoxide Redesignation Request and 
Maintenance Plan for the Maricopa County Nonattainment Area (May 
2003), page 3-10.
    \14\ See page 13 of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Therefore, based on the net reduction in CO emissions due to the 
VEI SIP Revision and expansion of Area A boundaries, the relatively 
constant level of overall CO emissions, and monitoring data that shows 
that ambient CO levels remain well below the CO NAAQS, we find that 
exempting motorcycles from emissions testing under the VEI program, 
together with expanding the boundaries of Area A, would not interfere 
with continued attainment of the CO NAAQS in the Phoenix area.
3. Particulate Matter
    EPA has promulgated different NAAQS for particles with a nominal 
aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10) and for 
particles with a nominal aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers 
(microns) or less (PM2.5). Ambient PM10 and 
PM2.5 levels consist of directly-emitted particles as well 
as secondary particles formed through atmospheric reactions involving 
such precursors as NOX and sulfur dioxide (SO2).
    In 1990, the Phoenix area was designated as a ``moderate'' 
nonattainment for the PM10 NAAQS by operation of law under 
the CAA Amendments of 1990. EPA reclassified the area as ``serious'' in 
1996. See 61 FR 21372 (May 10, 1996). In 2002, EPA approved the 
``serious area'' PM10 plan, which was intended to provide 
for attainment of the PM10 NAAQS in the Phoenix area by 
2006. See 67 FR 48718 (July 25, 2002); certain plan elements re-
approved at 71 FR 43979 (August 3, 2006). In 2007, EPA finalized its 
finding that the Phoenix area had failed to attain the PM10 
NAAQS by the applicable attainment date. See 72 FR 31183 (June 6, 
2007). Finally, on February 14, 2011, EPA finalized its finding that 
the Phoenix area had failed to submit an attainment demonstration SIP 
for its PM10 nonattainment area. See 76 FR 8300 (February 
14, 2011). PM10 emissions in the Phoenix area are largely 
attributable to coarse particles, composed primarily of geologic 
material.\15\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \15\ ``PM-10 Source Apportionment and Deposition Study Prepared 
for Maricopa Association of Governments by Sierra Research, Inc.'', 
2008, p. 2.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In 2005, EPA designated Maricopa County as ``unclassifiable/
attainment'' for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. See 70 FR 944, at 954 
(January 5, 2005). More recently, EPA designated Maricopa County as 
``unclassifiable/attainment''

[[Page 66428]]

for the 2006 PM2.5 NAAQS. See 76 FR 6056 (February 3, 2011). 
Local monitoring by co-located PM10 and PM2.5 
monitors confirms that PM2.5 on high PM10 days is 
a small fraction of the PM10 concentrations.
    PM10 emissions are emitted as a product of incomplete 
combustion along with such other pollutants as CO and VOC, and because 
the exemption of motorcycles from emissions testing requirements of the 
VEI program in the Phoenix area would incrementally increase emissions 
of the latter pollutants, it would also likely result in the 
incremental increase of the former as well.
    Neither the MOBILE6.2 nor the MOVES2010 emissions models provide 
any PM10 emission reduction credit for the I/M program. In 
light of its failure to attain the PM10 NAAQS, however, EPA 
requested ADEQ to attempt to quantify the PM10 emissions 
impact of this new exemption. ADEQ used the MOBILE6.2 model to estimate 
the I/M impact on PM10 emissions from motorcycles based on 
the gaseous hydrocarbon emissions. ADEQ's estimated PM10 
emissions in Area A due to the exemption of motorcycles from the VEI 
program is equivalent to approximately 0.000361% of the total 
PM10 emissions in Area A.\16\ However, similar to our 
evaluation for ozone, we find that the expansion of the boundaries of 
Area A would more than offset the minimal estimated increase in 
PM10 emissions due to the motorcycle exemption. As a result, 
we conclude that the motorcycle exemption, combined with the expansion 
of the boundaries in Area A, would be consistent with attainment of the 
PM10 standard in the Phoenix area.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \16\ See pages 11-13 of the 2011 VEI SIP Addendum.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    With respect to the PM2.5 standard, all of the 
PM10 from exhaust can be assumed to be PM2.5. We 
believe that the motorcycle exemption, considered together with the 
expansion of Area A boundaries, would not interfere with attainment or 
maintenance of the PM2.5 standard because there would be a 
net decrease in emissions and because the area is currently attaining 
the standard.
4. Air Toxics
    Since the CAA does not have ambient air quality standards for air 
toxics, the EPA's interpretation of section 110(l) is that an area's 
compliance with any applicable Maximum Achievable Control Technology 
(MACT) standards, as well as any Federal Motor Vehicle Control Programs 
(FMVCP) under sections 112 or 202(l) of the CAA constitutes an 
acceptable demonstration of noninterference for air toxics. Motor 
vehicles are not subject to MACT standards, and the VEI SIP Revision, 
together with the expansion of Area A boundaries, will not interfere 
with any Federal Motor Vehicle Control Programs that apply in the area. 
For these reasons, the State thus concludes, and EPA concurs, that the 
VEI SIP Revision and expansion of Area A boundaries would not interfere 
with any applicable CAA requirements relative to air toxics.
5. Conclusion
    Based on the evaluation presented above, we find that the exemption 
of motorcycles in the Phoenix area from the VEI program, coupled with 
the expansion of the boundaries of Area A would not interfere with 
reasonable further progress or attainment of any of the NAAQS, and 
thus, we propose to approve the 2009 VEI SIP Revision, 2011 VEI SIP 
Addendum, and the expansion of the boundaries of Area A [i.e., amended 
ARS section 49-541(1)] as consistent with the requirements for SIP 
revisions under CAA section 110(l).

D. Contingency Provisions of CAA Section 175A(d)

    In 2005, EPA redesignated the Phoenix area from nonattainment to 
attainment for the CO NAAQS and approved a maintenance plan. See 70 FR 
11553 (March 9, 2005) and 70 FR 52926 (September 6, 2005). The CO 
maintenance plan includes contingency elements or plans that we 
approved as meeting the requirements of CAA section 175A(d).
    The contingency plan establishes an action (or trigger) level 
protective of the NAAQS and identifies several measures, including 
expansion of ``Area A'' (the area in which certain control measures 
apply), for early implementation as well as consideration of additional 
measures on a set schedule following the triggering event. At the time 
of redesignation of the Phoenix area to attainment for the CO NAAQS, 
the VEI programs were adopted and approved into the Arizona SIP and 
were assumed to continue in effect throughout the maintenance periods. 
Moreover, the VEI programs at the time of redesignation of these areas 
did not exempt motorcycles from the emissions testing requirements.
    Generally, contingency plans should clearly identify the measures 
to be adopted, a schedule and procedure for adoption and 
implementation, and a specific time limit for action by the State and 
should also identify specific indicators, or triggers, which will be 
used to determine when the contingency measures need to be implemented. 
See EPA Memorandum from John Calcagni, Office of Air Quality Planning 
and Standards, entitled ``Procedures for Processing Requests to 
Redesignate Areas to Attainment,'' dated September 4, 1992. At a 
minimum, CAA section 175A(d) requires that the State adopt as 
contingency measures all control measures that had been approved in the 
SIP for the area prior to redesignation but that the State subsequently 
repeals or relaxes. In this instance, because the EPA-approved VEI 
emissions testing requirements applied to motorcycles at the time of 
redesignation for the Phoenix area, reinstatement of emissions testing 
for this newly-exempt vehicle category must be adopted as contingency 
measures for the Phoenix CO maintenance areas to comply with CAA 
section 175A(d).
    ADEQ's 2009 VEI SIP Revision includes a new contingency measure 
establishing a binding commitment on ADEQ to request Legislative action 
to reinstate emissions testing for motorcycles in the Phoenix area 
should the applicable area experience a violation of the CO 
standards.\17\ Specifically, ADEQ's contingency measure involves 
notification to the Legislature by the October following a violation of 
the CO standard in the Phoenix area. After notifying the Legislature, 
ADEQ will request that the Arizona Legislature enact new legislation to 
reinstate the motorcycle exemption during the General Legislative 
Session that begins in January. ADEQ's request to the Legislature will 
call for testing to be renewed for the newly exempt vehicle category in 
the Phoenix testing area beginning the January following the General 
Legislative Session.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \17\ See page 19 of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    We view ADEQ's contingency measure in the context of the existing 
EPA-approved CO contingency plans for the Phoenix area, and as such, we 
find that the plans, as amended to include these new contingency 
measures, continue to meet the requirements of CAA section 175A(d), and 
that the new contingency measure itself is consistent with all 
applicable requirements.

IV. EPA's Proposed Action and Request for Public Comment

    Under section 110(k) of the CAA, EPA is proposing to approve the 
revisions to the Arizona SIP submitted by ADEQ on November 6, 2009 and 
January 11, 2011 concerning the exemption of motorcycles from the 
Arizona VEI program in the Phoenix area, because we find that the 
revisions meet all

[[Page 66429]]

applicable requirements, and together with the expansion of the 
geographic area to which the VEI and other air pollution control 
measures apply, would not interfere with reasonable further progress or 
attainment of any of the national ambient air quality standards. EPA is 
also proposing to approve the revised statutory provision [amended 
Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) section 49-541(1)], submitted by ADEQ on 
May 25, 2012,\18\ that expands the boundaries of Area A, i.e., the area 
in which the various air pollution control measures (including the VEI, 
and cleaner burning gasoline and stage II vapor recovery programs) in 
the Phoenix area apply.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \18\ Final approval of the amendment to ARS 49-541(1) that 
expands the boundaries of ``Area A'' to those promulgated by the 
Arizona Legislature in 2001 would supersede the previous versions of 
ARS 49-541(1) approved into the Arizona SIP and would expand the 
applicability under the Arizona SIP of the VEI program, the CBG 
program, the Stage II vapor recovery program and any other Arizona 
SIP control measure that relies on the definition of ``Area A'' in 
ARS 49-541(1).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    We will accept comments from the public on this proposal for the 
next 30 days.

V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    Under the Clean Air Act, the Administrator is required to approve a 
SIP submission that complies with the provisions of the Act and 
applicable Federal regulations. 42 U.S.C. 7410(k); 40 CFR 52.02(a). 
Thus, in reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state 
choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the Clean Air Act. 
Accordingly, this action merely proposes to approve state law as 
meeting Federal requirements and does not impose additional 
requirements beyond those imposed by state law. For that reason, this 
proposed action:
     Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to 
review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 
12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993);
     Does not impose an information collection burden under the 
provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.);
     Is certified as not having a significant economic impact 
on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory 
Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);
     Does not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or 
uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded 
Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4);
     Does not have Federalism implications as specified in 
Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999);
     Is not an economically significant regulatory action based 
on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 
19885, April 23, 1997);
     Is not a significant regulatory action subject to 
Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001);
     Is not subject to requirements of Section 12(d) of the 
National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 
note) because application of those requirements would be inconsistent 
with the Clean Air Act; and
     Does not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to 
address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental 
effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under 
Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).

    In addition, this proposed rule does not have tribal implications 
as specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), 
because the SIP is not approved to apply in Indian country located in 
the state, and EPA notes that it will not impose substantial direct 
costs on tribal governments or preempt tribal law.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52

    Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, 
Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Oxides of 
nitrogen, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile 
organic compounds.

    Dated: October 22, 2012.
Jared Blumenfeld,
Regional Administrator, Region IX.
[FR Doc. 2012-26977 Filed 11-2-12; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P



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