How Do Carburetors Work?
March 1, 2006
Carburetors are an important component in engines that help in internal combustion for running the machinery. Carburetors are used in automobiles including cars, motorbikes, jet skis, boats, and even light aircrafts. They are also used in small machinery like lawnmowers, chain saws, and other equipment.
The carburetor influences the speed of the engine. This is possible by controlling the flow of air into the engine. The main function of a carburetor is to ensure that a correct mixture of gasoline and air enters the engine. This is very important as the engine is in different conditions at different times. The carburetor is needed when the engine must be started cold, or when it is idling, slow running, accelerating, moving at high speed or high power, or cruising.
The carburetor comprises of a tube with an adjustable plate called the "throttle" placed across it. This throttle controls the amount of air that flows through the tube. The carburetor tube narrows down at a place called the venture, where a vacuum is created. There is a hole in this narrowing called the "jet", which allows the fuel to be drawn in because of the vacuum. When the throttle is parallel to the length of the tube, it is said to be at full throttle. At full throttle, the airflow is at its highest, creating more vacuums in the venturi. This vacuum causes more gas to enter the tube, thus increasing the power of the engine. On the other hand, when throttle plate is closed, the engine is said to be idling. The airflow into tube is reduced and the vacuum created in the venturi is not sufficient to bring in enough fuel. The shape of the carburetor causes changes in the air pressure in the engine, ensuring a good mix of fuel and air.
There are several parts to a carburetor that allow for smooth functioning. They are the pilots or slow jets, pilot airscrew, throttle valve or slide, jet needle, needle jet or spray-bar, air jet, and main jet. Other important parts are the choke, accelerator pump, float chamber and barrels that help to create the ideal mixture of gas and air in the engine to increase fuel efficiency.
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